PESD - Publications Page
National oil companies (NOCs) produce most of the world’s oil and natural gas and bankroll governments across the globe. Although NOCs superficially resemble private-sector companies, they often behave in very different ways. To understand these pivotal state-owned enterprises and the long shadow they cast on world energy markets, the Program on Energy and Sustainable Development (PESD) at Stanford University commissioned Oil and Governance: State-owned Enterprises and the World Energy Supply.
China’s annual coal production, at 3.24 billion tonnes (Gt) in 2010, accounted for nearly half of the global total. In this comprehensive analysis of China’s coal value chain, Jianjun Tu examines the industrial organization and structure of China’s coal production, transport, and consumption. Tu’s study shines a light on one of the world’s largest and most complex energy markets and should be read by anyone with an interest in the future of coal, climate change, or global energy markets.
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Burning of biomass for cooking is associated with health problems and climate change impacts. Many previous efforts to disseminate improved stoves – primarily by governments and NGOs – have not been successful. Based on interviews with 12 organizations selling improved biomass stoves, we assess the results to date and future prospects of commercial stove operations in India.
This report proposes an ancillary services payment mechanism for the Chilean electricity supply industry. This is accomplished in three steps. The first section presents a set of economic principles for assessing the likely performance of candidate ancillary services payment mechanisms in the context of Chilean electricity supply industry. The second section uses this framework to assess the likely performance of the ancillary services payment mechanism recently proposed by the National Energy Commission (NEC) in its letter Number 715 dated September 21, 2010.
Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this “Norwegian Model” of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries.
Voluntary opt-in programs to reduce emissions in unregulated sectors or countries have spurred considerable discussion. Since any regulator will make errors in predicting baselines and participants will self-select into the program, adverse selection will reduce efficiency and possibly environmental integrity. In contrast, pure subsidies lead to full participation but require large financial transfers.
Any mention of climate policy was noticeably missing from President Obama's recent state of the union address. This is unfortunate because every day of inaction on climate policy by the United States government is another day that American consumers must pay substantially higher prices for products derived from crude oil, such as gasoline and diesel fuel. Moreover, a substantial fraction of the revenues from these higher prices goes to governments of countries that the US would prefer not to support.
The Policy Tightrope in Gas-Producing Countries: Stimulating Domestic Demand Without Discouraging Supply
As the world's fifth largest coal exporter and a key swing supplier between the Atlantic and Pacific coal markets, South Africa is a crucial player in global markets. While the country has long been Europe's major supplier of coal, South African exports have begun to shift east and are steadily becoming a major source of coal supply for the Asian coal boom. This strategic positioning sets the stage for South Africa to become an even more important player in determining how the world trades and prices coal.