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Experience with Independent Power Projects (IPPs) in Developing Countries: Introduction and Case Study Methods, The
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Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Working Paper #23

April 2004

Starting in the late 1980s many nations began to reform their electric power markets away from state-dominated systems to those with a greater role for market forces. In developing countries, especially, these reforms have proved challenging. Successful reform requires a complex set of institutions and complementary reforms, such as in public finance and corporate governance. State-dominated systems typically create their own powerful constituencies that block or redirect the reform process.

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